bean_germinator02: What’s the incentive for the fish to go in there
afroman89595: What kind of fish is that? Looks creepy as hell
YouTube Video link
umtksa: fishing with photoshop actually good for enviroment
elkayem: Why are they dumb enough to swim up the tube? Gotta be some kind of bait or something right?
The Eels Trap with Bamboo Tube in Cambodia | Cambodian Traditional Eel Trap [11:00]
ELI5:Maternal haplogroups mean we’re all descended from the same woman?
I’m reading on 23andMe, trying to understand my results, and it says this:
If every person living today could trace his or her maternal line >back over thousands of generations, all of our lines would meet at >a single woman who lived in eastern Africa between 150,000 and >200,000 years ago. Though she was one of perhaps thousands of >women alive at the time, only the diverse branches of her >haplogroup have survived to today. The story of your maternal line >begins with her.
I’m confused. Why would there be only one woman whose genes survived through the generations? Does this mean that everyone alive now has a common human ancestor?
moriz0: Who you’re describing is called “mitochondrial Eve”.
Basically, all of our mitochondrial DNA traces back to this one woman, since mitochondria is passed on almost exclusively through the egg. Because of this, we can track the ancestry of all human cells, and they all happen to converge to one person.
This person is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor of all humans, but she is not the most recent common ancestor of all humans.
Sablemint: Yes, everyone alive now is related to this one person. But its not just that. You can trace every human and every chimpanzee to a single ancestor a long time ago too.
More than that . Every single living thing on this planet is descended from a single organism, a bacteria or something similar to it, that lived 3.5 billion years ago.
radome9: Think of it this way:
For each generation the likelihood of a matrilineal line dying out increases. This can happen in two ways:
1. The women in the matrilineal line have no offspring.
2. The women in the matrilineal line have only male offspring.
As thousands of generations go by, one of the two become increasingly likely, until there are only one matrilineal line left alive.
That doesn’t mean the other women’s genes didn’t survive, it just means she’s the only woman who can trace her ancestry down from 200000 years ago to today **through an unbroken line of daughters**.
Or think about it this way: all the women who kept their matrilineal line alive would have had at least one daughter, and some would have had **more** than one daughter. This means the ancestral tree eventually converges to one individual as we move back in time.
She is called mitochondrial Eve, since the mitochondria is almost exclusively inherited from the mother.
There’s a male equivalent, Y-chromosome Adam, who lived around 200,000 to 300,000 years ago. It is possible, but not likely, that mitochondrial Eve and y-chromosome Adam met each other.
Everyone alive today does share a common human ancestor, but he or she lived more recently than either Adam or Eve.
Gumption1234: Others have answered “what” I will deal with “how”.
Basically she had such a superior set of genes that her offspring out-competed all other contemporary humans. They *ALL* died, her offspring survived.
Which genes those are are subject to a lot of guesswork. It could be higher IQ – many IQ genes are contained on the X chromosome (even if we don’t know what they all are). It could be racism – and they made short work of other tribes because they banded togther. It could be some basic instinct that we all share – perhaps she was more attached to her children then other mothers of the time, and passed that attachment down. It could even be the modern propensity to obesity – perhaps she had a very strong set of genes for gorging herself during times of plenty, so she was the only survive of a time of not.
But whatever was special about her was enough to wipe out several hundred thousand other competing women and take their land and men.
If you wonder how mirrors are made watch this
GoingOnYourTomb: So it should be possible to make half mirror half glass would be trippy
whitcwa: Most mirrors are made with Aluminum.